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Chapter_09_1

Keywords: Robert Metcalfe , Xerox, 1980, Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel, and Xerox (DIX),open standard,Ethernet 802.3, LLC 802.2,half-duplex communication,full-duplex communications

In 1985, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards committee for Local and Metropolitan Networks published standards for LANs. These standards start with the number 802. The standard for Ethernet is 802.3. The IEEE wanted to make sure that its standards were compatible with those of the International Standards Organization (ISO) and OSI model. To ensure compatibility, the IEEE 802.3 standards had to address the needs of Layer 1 and the lower portion of Layer 2 of the OSI model. As a result, some small modifications to the original Ethernet standard were made in 802.3. 







Ethernet at Layer 1 involves signals, bit streams that travel on the media, physical components that put signals on media, and various topologies. Ethernet Layer 1 performs a key role in the communication that takes place between devices, but each of its functions has limitations. 

The MAC sublayer is concerned with the physical components that will be used to communicate the information and prepares the data for transmission over the media..
The Ethernet MAC sublayer has two primary responsibilities:
  • Data Encapsulation
    • Frame delimiting 
    • Addressing
    • Error detection
  • Media Access Control

The Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer remains relatively independent of the physical equipment that will be used for the communication process.
The LLC sublayer takes the network protocol data, which is typically an IPv4 packet, and adds control information to help deliver the packet to the destination node. Layer 2 communicates with the upper layers through LLC.
  • Makes the connection with the upper layer
  • Frames the Network Layer Packets
  • Identifies Network Layer Protocols
  • Remains independent of the Physical equipment

The success of Ethernet is due to the following factors:
  • Simplicity and ease of maintenance 
  • Ability to incorporate new technologies 
  • Reliability 
  • Low cost of installation and upgrade 





MAC Address Structure

The MAC address value is a direct result of IEEE-enforced rules for vendors to ensure globally unique addresses for each Ethernet device. The rules established by IEEE require any vendor that sells Ethernet devices to register with IEEE. The IEEE assigns the vendor a 3-byte code, called the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI). 

IEEE requires a vendor to follow two simple rules: 
All MAC addresses assigned to a NIC or other Ethernet device must use that vendor's assigned OUI as the first 3 bytes.
All MAC addresses with the same OUI must be assigned a unique value (vendor code or serial number) in the last 3 bytes.    


Hexadecimal Numbering

Hexadecimal ("Hex") is a convenient way to represent binary values. Just as decimal is a base ten numbering system and binary is base two, hexadecimal is a base sixteen system.

The base 16 numbering system uses the numbers 0 to 9 and the letters A to F. The figure shows the equivalent decimal, binary, and hexadecimal values for binary 0000 to 1111. It is easier for us to express a value as a single hexadecimal digit than as four bits. 



The Network layer address enables the packet to be forwarded toward its destination.
The Data Link layer address enables the packet to be carried by the local media across each segment.


Ethernet uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) to detect and handle collisions and manage the resumption of communications.

Carrier Sense

In the CSMA/CD access method, all network devices that have messages to send must listen before transmitting. 

If a device detects a signal from another device, it will wait for a specified amount of time before attempting to transmit. 

When there is no traffic detected, a device will transmit its message. While this transmission is occurring, the device continues to listen for traffic or collisions on the LAN. After the message is sent, the device returns to its default listening mode. 

Multi-access

If the distance between devices is such that the latency of one device's signals means that signals are not detected by a second device, the second device may start to transmit, too. The media now has two devices transmitting their signals at the same time. Their messages will propagate across the media until they encounter each other. At that point, the signals mix and the message is destroyed. Although the messages are corrupted, the jumble of remaining signals continues to propagate across the media.

Collision Detection

When a device is in listening mode, it can detect when a collision occurs on the shared media. The detection of a collision is made possible because all devices can detect an increase in the amplitude of the signal above the normal level.

Once a collision occurs, the other devices in listening mode - as well as all the transmitting devices - will detect the increase in the signal amplitude. Once detected, every device transmitting will continue to transmit to ensure that all devices on the network detect the collision. 

Jam Signal and Random Backoff

Once the collision is detected by the transmitting devices, they send out a jamming signal. This jamming signal is used to notify the other devices of a collision, so that they will invoke a backoff algorithm. This backoff algorithm causes all devices to stop transmitting for a random amount of time, which allows the collision signals to subside. 

After the delay has expired on a device, the device goes back into the "listening before transmit" mode. A random backoff period ensures that the devices that were involved in the collision do not try to send their traffic again at the same time, which would cause the whole process to repeat. But, this also means that a third device may transmit before either of the two involved in the original collision have a chance to re-transmit. 

A collision domain is also referred to as a network segment. Hubs and repeaters therefore have the effect of increasing the size of the collision domain.



Ethernet in PHYSICAL Layer 






Switches allow the segmentation of the LAN into separate collision domains. Each port of the switch represents a separate collision domain and provides the full media bandwidth to the node or nodes connected on that port. With fewer nodes in each collision domain, there is an increase in the average bandwidth available to each node, and collisions are reduced.


Advantages of Switches over HUBS

In a LAN where all nodes are connected directly to the switch, the throughput of the network increases dramatically. The three primary reasons for this increase are:
  • Dedicated bandwidth to each port
  • Collision-free environment
  • Full-duplex operation



Switch Operation 

To accomplish their purpose, Ethernet LAN switches use five basic operations: 
  • Learning 
  • Aging 
  • Flooding 
  • Selective Forwarding 
  • Filtering 

Learning

The MAC table must be populated with MAC addresses and their corresponding ports. The Learning process allows these mappings to be dynamically acquired during normal operation. 

As each frame enters the switch, the switch examines the source MAC address. Using a lookup procedure, the switch determines if the table already contains an entry for that MAC address. If no entry exists, the switch creates a new entry in the MAC table using the source MAC address and pairs the address with the port on which the entry arrived. The switch now can use this mapping to forward frames to this node.

Aging

The entries in the MAC table acquired by the Learning process are time stamped. This timestamp is used as a means for removing old entries in the MAC table. After an entry in the MAC table is made, a procedure begins a countdown, using the timestamp as the beginning value. After the value reaches 0, the entry in the table will be refreshed when the switch next receives a frame from that node on the same port. 

Flooding

If the switch does not know to which port to send a frame because the destination MAC address is not in the MAC table, the switch sends the frame to all ports except the port on which the frame arrived. The process of sending a frame to all segments is known as flooding. The switch does not forward the frame to the port on which it arrived because any destination on that segment will have already received the frame. Flooding is also used for frames sent to the broadcast MAC address.

Selective Forwarding

Selective forwarding is the process of examining a frame's destination MAC address and forwarding it out the appropriate port. This is the central function of the switch. When a frame from a node arrives at the switch for which the switch has already learned the MAC address, this address is matched to an entry in the MAC table and the frame is forwarded to the corresponding port. Instead of flooding the frame to all ports, the switch sends the frame to the destination node via its nominated port. This action is called forwarding.

Filtering

In some cases, a frame is not forwarded. This process is called frame filtering. One use of filtering has already been described: a switch does not forward a frame to the same port on which it arrived. A switch will also drop a corrupt frame. If a frame fails a CRC check, the frame is dropped. An additional reason for filtering a frame is security. A switch has security settings for blocking frames to and/or from selective MAC addresses or specific ports. 


The ARP protocol provides two basic functions:

  • Resolving IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses
  • Maintaining a cache of mappings


Proxy ARP

There are circumstances under which a host might send an ARP request seeking to map an IPv4 address outside of the range of the local network. In these cases, the device sends ARP requests for IPv4 addresses not on the local network instead of requesting the MAC address associated with the IPv4 address of the gateway. To provide a MAC address for these hosts, a router interface may use a proxy ARP to respond on behalf of these remote hosts. This means that the ARP cache of the requesting device will contain the MAC address of the gateway mapped to any IP addresses not on the local network. Using proxy ARP, a router interface acts as if it is the host with the IPv4 address requested by the ARP request. By "faking" its identity, the router accepts responsibility for routing packets to the "real" destination. 




Security concerns regarding ARP

In some cases, the use of ARP can lead to a potential security risk. ARP spoofing, or ARP poisoning, is a technique used by an attacker to inject the wrong MAC address association into a network by issuing fake ARP requests. An attacker forges the MAC address of a device and then frames can be sent to the wrong destination.

Manually configuring static ARP associations is one way to prevent ARP spoofing. Authorized MAC addresses can be configured on some network devices to restrict network access to only those devices listed.